John E. Cornell, Joshua M. Liao, et al | Annals of Internal Medicine

In traditional meta-analyses, researchers combine data from individual studies into a summary measure to describe the benefits or harms of an intervention. A primer for evaluating the meaning of a summary estimate and understanding to whom and under what circumstances it applies. 

Joshua M. Liao, Catharine B. Stack, et al | Annals of Internal Medicine

An intention-to-treat (ITT) analysis theoretically evaluates all participants within their original randomly assigned group but a true ITT analysis is often difficult. A primer for how to evaluate a study for which authors report that an ITT analysis was done. READ MORE

internal medicine Evidence


Zahir Kanjee, Joshua M. Liao | Wolters Kluwer


Meaning of a Summary Estimate in A Meta-Analysis

methods primer

Cases in Hospital Medicine

Joshua M. Liao & Catharine B. Stack | Annals of Internal Medicine

Missing data due to dropout is a common problem that can affect the validity of RCT findings. A primer for how to navigate and understand the analytic methods used to handle this problem. READ MORE

implications of missing data from drop out

Joshua M. Liao, Zahir Kanjee, Joel T. Katz, Joseph Loscalzo | Wolters Kluwer

In the name of more informed approach to clinical medicine, 100 of the most practice-changing articles in the field of Internal Medicine: curated with input from clinicians at Harvard Medical School to be brief, easy-to-read, accessible. READ MORE

methods primer

intention-to-treat analysis

methods primer

unpacking methods for using medical evidence to make more informed decisions