Joshua M. Liao, Zahir Kanjee, Joel T. Katz, Joseph Loscalzo | Wolters Kluwer

In the name of more informed approach to clinical medicine, 100 of the most practice-changing articles in the field of Internal Medicine: curated with input from clinicians at Harvard Medical School to be brief, easy-to-read, accessible. READ MORE

methods primer

intention-to-treat analysis

methods primer

unpacking methods for using medical evidence to make informed decisions

implications of missing data from drop out

John E. Cornell, Joshua M. Liao, et al | Annals of Internal Medicine

In traditional meta-analyses, researchers combine data from individual studies into a summary measure to describe the benefits or harms of an intervention. A primer for evaluating the meaning of a summary estimate and understanding to whom and under what circumstances it applies. 

Joshua M. Liao, Catharine B. Stack, et al | Annals of Internal Medicine

An intention-to-treat (ITT) analysis theoretically evaluates all participants within their original randomly assigned group but a true ITT analysis is often difficult. A primer for how to evaluate a study for which authors report that an ITT analysis was done. READ MORE

Meaning of a Summary Estimate in A Meta-Analysis

Zahir Kanjee, Joshua M. Liao | Wolters Kluwer


Cases in Hospital Medicine

internal medicine Evidence

methods primer



Joshua M. Liao & Catharine B. Stack | Annals of Internal Medicine

Missing data due to dropout is a common problem that can affect the validity of RCT findings. A primer for how to navigate and understand the analytic methods used to handle this problem. READ MORE